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Performance of Fresh Market Snap Bean Cultivars, Plateau Experiment Station, 2000

Charles A. Mullins

 

Interpretative Summary

Most cultivars performed reasonably well in the trial, and had widely varying characteristics. ‘Capicorn’, ‘Hialeah’, ‘SSC 1207', and ‘SSC 1208' were among the most productive cultivars and appeared to have desirable plant and pod characteristics needed for fresh market snap bean cultivars.

Introduction

The snap bean is the largest acreage vegetable crop grown in Tennessee with an annual production in the 10 to 12 thousand acre range. Most of the fresh market production is on the Cumberland plateau and surrounding valley areas. ‘Hialeah’ has been the predominate cultivar grown in recent years, although several other cultivars are available and are recommended for production in Tennessee. Seedsmen have continued to develop new lines, and evaluation of these lines under local conditions is needed to evaluate their performance. An experiment was conducted at the Plateau Experiment Station at Crossville, TN in 2000 to evaluate performance of 17 snap bean cultivars, primarily for fresh market usage.

Materials and Methods

The site was prepared for planting using conventional tillage in late April. Fertilizer was broadcast at 300 lb/A of 15-15-15 before final disking on May 5. Plots were direct seeded on May 5. Plot size was two rows, 20 ft long and each row was seeded with 160 seeds using a mechanical cone type planter. Rows were spaced 30 inches apart. Experimental plot design was a randomized complete block with four replications. Metolachlor (Dual II) was applied at 2 lb ai/A for weed control on May 5. Overhead irrigation was used to apply an inch of water on June 14. Chlorothalonil (Bravo) at 1.5 lb ai/A and Esfenvalerate (Asana) at 0.05 lb ai/A were applied for disease and insect control on June 23. All cultivars were mechanically harvested on July 5 using a one row Pixall harvester.
Plant characteristics determined before harvest were plant height, width and lodging. Pod height above ground was measured before harvest. Yields were recorded at harvest. A two pound sample of harvested pods was selected from each plot. Clusters were counted in the sample. The sample was separated into trash, broken pods, rotten pods, less than No.2 sieve size, No.2-No.4 sieve size, and No.5 sieve size and up. An 85 gram sample of No. 4 sieve pods was measured for firmness using a Food Texture Machine. Twenty-five No. 4 sieve pods were selected and measured for length, and rated for shape, curvature, smoothness, and color. Ratings were made on a 1 to 5 scale. A rating of 5 indicated round pods, straight pods, smooth pods, and dark colored pods. All data were analyzed by analysis of variance procedures, and cultivar means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range tests at the 0.05 level of probability.

Results and Discussion

‘Mercury’ was among cultivars with the tallest plants (Table 1). Plant height was in the 15 to 16 inch range which indicates moderate plant growth. Height was adequate for acceptable machine harvest. Plants of ‘Mirada’ had a greater width than plants of ‘Carlo’ and ‘SB 4222'. ‘Bronco’ and ‘Hialeah’ had more lodging than ‘Rhapsody’ and ‘SSC 1208'. Lodging ratings were generally very low, and lodging did not present a problem in harvest. ‘Carlo‘ and ‘SB 4222' set pods very high above the ground while ‘Benchmark’ and ‘Mirada’ set pods closer to the ground. ‘Capicorn’, ‘SSC 1208 , and ‘Horto’ produced higher yields than ‘Carlo’. Stand counts were not taken, but observations indicated that ‘Carlo’ had a poor stand which accounts for the low yield.
‘Savannah’ produced more pod clusters than ‘Benchmark’ and ‘Mirada’ (Table 2). A cluster consisted of 2 or more pods joined with a piece of stem or a piece of plant stem over an inch long attached to the pod stem. Trash levels were relatively low for all cultivars. ‘Savannah’ and ‘SSC 1202' were among cultivars that had the highest percentage of trash in the mechanically harvested pods. Pods of ‘HM 5991' broke severely during harvest. ‘Rhapsody’ was among cultivars with little pod breakage. ‘HM 5991' had more small pods (< No.2 sieve) than all other cultivars. This cultivar was several days later in maturity than the other cultivars. ‘Horto’ had a high percentage of pods in the No. 2 to No.4 sieve range. ‘Mercury’ produced a high percentage of pods in the No.5 and over sieve size.
Pods of ‘Hialeah’ were longer than pods of all cultivars except ‘Benchmark’ and ‘Festina’ (Table 3). Relatively long pods are usually preferred for fresh market snap beans. Pods of ‘Horto’ were very firm and were in the firmness range of being tough. ‘Capicorn’ and ‘HM 5991' were among cultivars with the least firmness. Pods of ‘Horto’ were relatively flat, and pods of the other cultivars were round. ‘Benchmark’, ‘Bronco’, and ‘Stallion’ were among cultivars with the straightest pods. Pods of ‘SSC 1202' were relatively smooth while pods of ‘Horto’ were rather rough and bumpy. ‘Bronco’, ‘HM 5991', ‘Savannah’, and ‘SSC 1207' were among cultivars with the darkest pod color.

Table 1. Plant characteristics, yield, and seed source of fresh market snap bean cultivars evaluated at The University of Tennessee Plateau Experiment Station at Crossville, 2000.

 

Cultivar

Plant height - inches

Plant width - inches

Plant lodging - %

Pod height above ground - in.

Yield-
bu/A

 

Seed source

Benchmark

15.0 bz

16.2 abc

4.0 ab

1.50 d

117 ab

Novartis

Bronco

15.0 b

17.5 abc

5.0 a

2.25 cd

112 ab

Asgrow

Capicorn

14.8 b

18.2 ab

2.5 ab

2.50 bcd

167 a

Novartis

Carlo

15.8 ab

14.2 c

0.0 b

4.00 a

86 b

Asgrow

Festina

15.5 ab

18.5 ab

2.5 ab

2.25 cd

100 ab

Asgrow

Hialeah (ck)

16.0 ab

17.8 ab

5.0 a

2.75 abcd

153 ab

Harris Moran

HM 5991

15.2 b

16.8 abc

3.8 ab

3.50 abc

111 ab

Harris Moran

Mercury

17.5 a

17.5 abc

2.5 ab

3.50 abc

138 ab

Novartis

Mirada

15.2 b

19.5 a

3.0 ab

1.50 d

138 ab

Novartis

Rhapsody

15.0 b

18.2 ab

5.5 a

2.50 bcd

120 ab

Harris Moran

Savannah

15.0 b

18.0 ab

3.0 ab

2.50 bcd

153 ab

Harris Moran

SB 4222

15.8 ab

15.2 bc

0.0 b

4.00 a

96 ab

Novartis

SSC 1207

14.8 b

18.0 ab

3.8 ab

2.50 bcd

136 ab

Shamrock

SSC 1208

15.5 ab

18.0 ab

5.0 a

2.75 a-d

160 a

Shamrock

SSC 1202

15.5 ab

18.0 ab

3.8 ab

3.50 abc

119 ab

Shamrock

Stallion

15.0 b

17.2 abc

3.8 ab

2.50 bcd

130 ab

Asgrow

Horto

16.2 ab

18.8 ab

2.5 ab

2.50 bcd

162 a

Seedway

z Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability, Duncan’s multiple range tests.

Table 2. Pod characteristics of harvested fresh market snap bean cultivars evaluated at The University of Tennessee Plateau Experiment Station at Crossville, 2000.

 

Cultivar

Clusters - no./lb

Trash - %

Broken pods - %

Rotten pods-%

< 2 sieve pods -%

2-4 sieve
pods - %

5 + up
sieve pods - %

Benchmark

0.5 c

0.9 de

9.9 bcd

0.0 b

3.7 bc

69.2 b-e

15.6 bcd

Bronco

4.5 abc

0.00 e

9.2 be

0.0 b

3.8 bc

82.4 abc

4.2 de

Capicorn

5.0 abc

2.0 ab

4.9 de

0.0 b

3.2 bc

63.2 de

26.2 ab

Carlo

1.5 abc

1.6 ab

5.9 b-e

0.0 b

5.5 b

85.4 ab

1.6 de

Festina

3.2 abc

1.8 abc

9.3 b-e

0.0 b

2.7 bc

76.4 a-d

9.8 cde

Hialeah (ck)

5.5 abc

2.1 ab

6.8 b-e

0.0 b

2.0 bc

74.9 a-d

14.7 cde

HM 5991

2.0 abc

1.7 abc

16.6 a

0.0 b

11.9 a

69.6 b-e

0.0 e

Mercury

5.75 ab

1.2 bcd

6.2 b-e

0.0 b

2.9 bc

57.9 e

30.2 a

Mirada

1.0 bc

1.6 abc

6.1 b-e

0.0 b

2.1 bc

85.8 ab

4.4 de

Rhapsody

5.2 abc

2.1 ab

4.0 e

0.0 b

2.6 bc

67.2 cde

23.8 abc

Savannah

6.5 a

2.7 a

11.2 b

0.0 b

3.3 bc

83.8 abc

0.8 e

SB 4222

3.2 abc

1.1 bcd

7.4 b-e

0.7 a

4.1 bc

78.9 abcd

8.0 de

SSC 1207

4.5 abc

2.3 ab

8.8 b-e

0.0 b

5.1 b

83.1 abc

1.0 de

SSC 1208

5.0 abc

1.1 bcd

5.3 cde

0.0 b

3.0 bc

83.1 abc

7.8 de

SSC 1202

6.0 ab

2.5 a

7.1 b-e

0.0 b

4.3 bc

83.5 abc

1.6 de

Stallion

5.0 abc

0.8 cde

7.9 b-e

0.0 b

2.5 bc

80.2 abc

7.8 de

Horto

6.0 ab

2.3 ab

6.1 b-e

0.0 b

1.3 c

90.8 a

0.0 e

z Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability, Duncan’s multiple range tests.

Table 3. Pod quality characteristics of fresh market snap bean cultivars evaluated at The University of Tennessee Plateau Experiment Station at Crossville, 2000.

 

Cultivar

Pod length - inches

Pod firmness

Pod shape ratingx

Pod curvature ratingx

Pod smoothness ratingx

Pod color ratingx

Benchmark

5.6 ab

1025 jh

5.0 a

4.4 a

4.2 bcd

4.6 bc

Bronco

4.9 ef

1011 gh

4.5 a

4.5 a

4.3 cd

4.8 a

Capicorn

5.3 cd

978 h

5.0 a

3.9 d

4.4 ac

4.4 de

Carlo

5.3 bc

1105 c-f

5.0 a

4.0 bcd

4.3 bcd

4.5 cd

Festina

5.6 ab

1112 cde

4.5 a

4.0 bcd

4.3 a-d

4.7 ab

Hialeah (ck)

5.8 a

1235 b

5.0 a

4.3 abc

4.1 d

4.0 f

HM 5991

4.5 hi

977 h

5.0 a

4.4 ab

4.4 abc

4.8 a

Mercury

5.2 cde

1105 c-f

5.0 a

4.0 bcd

4.4 abc

4.0 f

Mirada

5.3 bc

1171 bc

5.0 a

4.3 a-d

4.3 a-d

4.3 de

Rhapsody

5.4 bc

1132 cde

5.0 a

4.3 abc

4.2 cd

4.4 de

Savannah

4.2 i

1005 gh

5.0 a

4.2 a-d

4.2 cd

4.8 a

SB 4222

5.3 bc

1064 efg

5.0 a

4.0 cd

4.3 a-d

4.7 ab

SSC 1207

5.0 def

1104 c-f

5.0 a

4.3 ab

4.3 a-d

4.8 a

SSC 1208

4.5 ghi

1033 fgh

5.0 a

4.3 a-d

4.4 abc

4.7 ab

SSC 1202

4.8 fg

1144 cd

5.0 a

4.1 a-d

4.6 a

4.2 e

Stallion

5.2 cde

1077 d-g

5.0 a

4.4 a

4.5 ab

4.3 de

Horto

5.2 cde

1484 a

2.0 b

4.2 a-d

3.2 e

3.0 g

x Ratings on a scale of 1 to 5; 1 = flat pods, curved pods, rough pods, or light colored pods.
z Means within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level of probability, Duncan’s multiple range tests.
 

Copyright © 1999 by The University of Tennessee. All rights reserved.

This research represents one season's data and does not constitute recommendations.  After sufficient data is collected over the appropriate number of seasons, final recommendations will be made through research and extension publications.

 

 

 

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